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The amount of blood taken at appointments will vary at different times during the study but will usually be between 3 and 6 teaspoons of blood each time.

Blood samples

The blood samples provided will be used to measure things such as kidney, liver, heart function, and levels of blood sugar and salts in the body. The study team want to measure these things to assess the effects of the study pills.

The urine samples will be measured for protein markers of kidney disease and damage.

Some of these tests are not routinely performed by all hospitals, so some of the blood and urine will be transported to Oxford. This is why study blood and urine samples will need to be taken at the study appointments rather than at a GP’s surgery.

The study research nurse will also ask participants if they would allow left over blood and urine samples, together with health data collected in this study, to be stored long-term to help investigate other effects of empagliflozin and other future research.

Leftover blood and urine samples are those which have already been collected for the purposes of the study, and would be discarded otherwise. There is no additional health risk to participants.

Participants have the choice whether or not they would like to participate in this optional part of the study. If someone decides that they do not want to give permission, they can still take part in the main part of the study.